Wednesday, December 30, 2009

First Molars And Life History In Living African And Asian Apes

Another interesting paper on teeth, specifically the eruption of the first molar (M1), by Jay Kelley and Gary Schwartz from The Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University (ASU) Since the emergence of M1 correlates with many life history attributes in extant primates, data from this paper can be used to compare the life history among extant primates and also extinct apes and hominins.

"Knowing the age when the first molar appears in the mouths of most primates allows researchers to predict a host of life history attributes, such as gestation length, age at sexual maturity, birth spacing and overall lifespan," said Schwartz. "Humans are unique among primates because our life histories are so slow and thus our molars emerge relatively late. Given that apes are our closest living relatives, understanding the broader context of when the characteristic slower development of humans evolved is of great interest."

"Like annual growth rings inside trees, the cells that produce teeth (both the enamel and underlying dentine) leave behind a trace of their presence, not as annual markers, but as growth lines that appear every day," said Kelley. By slicing the teeth in half, he and Schwartz were able to examine these incremental growth lines in ape individuals that died as their first molars were just erupting into their mouths. "Because teeth preserve this phenomenal internal chronometer, we were able to count up how many days it took the first molars to form," said Schwartz. "In apes and monkeys, first molars start forming very close to the time of birth. As the first molars were still erupting in our specimens, development was incomplete and the final growth line was laid down on the day those animals died. Therefore, by counting backwards from the final growth line to the day of birth, we determined their age at death and thus the age at which that molar was erupting." Using this novel approach, the two scientists were able to mark the age of the gorilla's first molar emergence at 3.8 years, nearly identical to that of a wild chimpanzee's. The orangutan's age at first molar emergence was surprisingly much later, at 4.6 years, which falls closer to the age of approximately 6 years in modern humans.

Read the article, Molars provide insight into evolution of apes, humans by ASU and Dental development and life history in living African and Asian apes from PNAS.

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