We share the same color vision unique to some of our primate cousins. This color vision is call trichromacy because it depends on three types of light to activate pigments in the retina of the eye. Trichromacy evolved from non primate mammals color vision that only requires two types of lights call dichromacy. Almost all non primate mammals are dichromats. Read the full article Color Vision: How Our Eyes Reflect Primate Evolution from Scientific American here.
Generally in humans, color blindness is the result of the inability to distinguish differences between some of the colors others can. It is generally, but not limited to, a genetic disorder.